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Jump to module in this page: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28

Western Europe:

Module 24: United Kingdom’s Industrial Revolution


  I.        Terms


A.    British Isles  (Great Britian, Ireland, Shetlands, Scilly, Channel Is, .....)


B.     United Kingdom


1. England                                       3. Scotland

2. Wales                                          4. Northern Ireland


 II.       Physiographic Provinces


A.    Caledonian Britain - Uplands


B.     Hercynian Britain - Carboniferous


C.    Lowland Britain - Cuestas


III.       Factors Leading to the Industrial Revolution


A.    Increased Knowledge


B.     Increased Population


C.    Availability of Capital


D.    Resource Base


E.     Laissez Faire


 IV.      Major Industrial Centers of the United Kingdom


A.    London


1.     Entrepot


2.     Greater London Plan


a.     New Towns


b.     Garden Cities


c.     Green Belt


B.     Manchester-Liverpool (textile center)


C.    Birmingham (steel center)


Module 25:  High Population Density - The Benelux Countries


  I.        Population Density Questionnaire


A.    What is the highest population density found in the world? ______ / sq. mi.


B.     What is the average population density of the United States? _____ / sq. mi.


C.    Name the three most densely populated states and three least densely populated.


Most densely populated                              Least densely populated


1.     __________________                      1.  ________________


2.     __________________                      2.  ________________


3.     __________________                      3.  ________________



D.    Most American live in urban areas.  What proportion of the U.S. land area do you think is devoted to urban living?

__________ percent


E.     How much of the U.S. area is devoted to agriculture; that is for growing crops and feeding and grazing of animals?

__________ percent


F.     In your opinion, of the twenty largest countries in the world, what are the three least densely populated?


Most densely populated                              Least densely populated


1.     __________________                      1.  ________________


2.     __________________                      2.  ________________


3.     __________________                      3.  ________________







A.    Physiography of the Netherlands


B.     Polders


1.     Beemstermeer Polder, 1608


2.     Closing of the Zuider Zee  (Lake Yssel)


3.     Polder construction in Lake Yssel


a.     Settlers


b.     Land use


c.     Decline of Amsterdam


4.     Delta Project and Wadden Zee


Module 26:  Paris - A Primate City


  I.        Growth of Paris


A.    Site


B.     Situation


C.    Historical Background


 II.       Jefferson's Primate City


A.    Characteristics of the Primate City


1.     The primate city "...stands out alone in a different order or magnitude and significance from those of all other cities in its country."  Mark Jefferson, 1939.


2.     Market


3.     National Influence


4.     Attraction


5.     Cultural and Educational Center


B.     Degree of Primacy


III.       Examples and Discussion








Primate City


Second City








































































































                                                         Von Thunen's Model


Given:     R = E(p-a) - Efk

R = rent per unit of land

k = distance to the market

E = output per unit of land

p = market price per unit of commodity

a = production cost per unit of commodity

f = transportation rate per unit of distance per unit of commodity


Therefore:      When k = 0, R = E(p-a)


When R = 0, k = (p-a)/f



E                p              a            f


Product A              50            2.00         .50          .03


Product B               50            1.75         .75          .02


Product C              80            3.25         1.25         .10


Product D              25            1.25         .25          .01


Problem: Solve the equation for products B - D


Point A1:              k = 0, when R = E(p-a)

R = 50(2.00 - .50)

R = 75.00 dollars


Point A2:             R = 0, when k = (p-a)/f

k = (2.00 - .50)/.03

Module 27:  Introduction to Theory and Von Thunen's Model


  I.        Four Steps in Scientific Method


A.    Observation (Quantitative vs. Qualitative)


B.     Classification


C.    Explanation


1.     Theory


a.     Hypothesis - educated guess


b.     Assumptions - simplifications  (Occum's Razor,  William of Occum)


c.     Postulates - final output


2.     Model - formal statement of theory


D.    Prediction


1.     Deterministic vs. probabilistic predictions


2.     Subjective vs. objective predictions


3.     Symmetrical preference (Buridan's Ass, Jean Buridan)


 II.       Johann Heinrich Von Thunen's Landuse Model


A.    Von Thunen's Objective


B.     Economic Rent "... the surplus of income accruing to a unit of land above the minimum income required to bring a unit of new land into use at the margin of production."  Thoman, Conkling, and Yeates, 1968.


C.    Assumptions


1.     An Isolated State

2.     Uniform Climate and Soil

3.     A Single Market

4.     Trading Interdependence

5.     Access

6.     Transportation Cost

7.     Labor Cost and Productivity


D.    Von Thunen’s Model


E.     Landuse Pattern - Concentric Rings


Module 28:  The Common Market - A United States of Europe



  I.        Historic Background


 II.       Rationale of Supranationalism


A.    Military Security


B.     Pan-europeanism


C.    Economic Benefits


III.       Post War Cooperation


IV.       European Economic Unification


A.    Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg)


B.     Schuman Plan (Benelux, Italy, France, and West Germany)


C.    European Coal and Steel Community


D.    Four Phases to Economic and Politcal Unification


1.     Phase One: European Economic Community, Treaty of Rome, 1958


a.     Objectives: End Conflict,  Raise Standard of Living, Large Scale                                                   Operations, Help Less Advanced Partners.                                          

b.     Program:  Remove Trade Barriers, Common Tariff, Transportation                                                        Policy, Planning and Development Policy, and Free Movement of Workers and Capital


2.     Phase Two: Economic Community, Merger Treaty, 1967


3.     Phase Three: European Union


a.     Single Europe Act, 1986


b.     Maastricht Treaty, 1991


c.     Current Problems and Issues


4.     Phase Four: Political Unification

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